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Your documents are more accessible and easier to navigate when they include a table of contents. Adobe Acrobat does not provide you with a convenient way.

While reading the input, the program remembers where measure boundaries are, and which pitches require explicit accidentals. This information must be held on several levels.

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For example, an accidental affects only a single staff, while a bar line must be synchronized across the entire score. Within LilyPond, these rules and bits of information are grouped in Contexts. We have already introduced the Voice context. Others are the Staff and Score contexts. Contexts are hierarchical to reflect the hierarchical nature of a musical score. For example: a Staff context can contain many Voice contexts, and a Score context can contain many Staff contexts. Each context has the responsibility for enforcing some notation rules, creating some notation objects and maintaining the associated properties.

For example, the Voice context may introduce an accidental and then the Staff context maintains the rule to show or suppress the accidental for the remainder of the measure. As another example, the synchronization of bar lines is, by default, handled in the Score context. In such cases, we must modify the default settings of the Score and Staff contexts.

For very simple scores, contexts are created implicitly, and you need not be aware of them. For larger pieces, such as anything with more than one staff, they must be created explicitly to make sure that you get as many staves as you need, and that they are in the correct order. For typesetting pieces with specialized notation, it is usual to modify existing, or even to define totally new, contexts. In addition to the Score, Staff and Voice contexts there are contexts which fit between the score and staff levels to control staff groups, such as the PianoStaff and ChoirStaff contexts.

There are also alternative staff and voice contexts, and contexts for lyrics, percussion, fret boards, figured bass, etc. The names of all context types are formed from one or more words, each word being capitalized and joined immediately to the preceding word with no hyphen or underscore, e. Notation Reference: Contexts explained. The Score context is usually left to be created automatically when the interpretation of that music expression starts.

For scores with only one voice and one staff, the Voice and Staff contexts may also be left to be created automatically, but for more complex scores it is necessary to create them by hand. It is prepended to a music expression, for example. This command creates a new context, and starts interpreting the music-expression within that context.

See Modifying context properties. It enables the structure of the music to be seen at a glance, and any unmatched brackets will be obvious. Note too how the LH staff is created using double angle brackets because it requires two voices for its music, whereas the RH staff is created with a single music expression surrounded by curly brackets because it requires only one voice. Note the distinction between the name of the context type, Staff , Voice , etc, and the identifying name of a particular instance of that type, which can be any sequence of letters invented by the user.

Digits and spaces can also be used in the identifying name, but then it has to be placed in quotes, i. The identifying name is used to refer back to that particular instance of a context. We saw this in use in the section on lyrics, see Voices and vocals. Notation Reference: Creating contexts. Every mark on the printed output of a score produced by LilyPond is produced by an Engraver.

Thus there is an engraver to print staves, one to print note heads, one for stems, one for beams, etc, etc. In total there are over such engravers! Fortunately, for most scores it is not necessary to know about more than a few, and for simple scores you do not need to know about any. Engravers live and operate in Contexts. Each engraver processes the particular objects associated with its function, and maintains the properties that relate to that function. These properties, like the properties associated with contexts, may be modified to change the operation of the engraver or the appearance of those elements in the printed score.

Engravers all have compound names formed from words which describe their function. Just the first word is capitalized, and the remainder are joined to it with underscores. Here are some of the most common engravers together with their function. You will see it is usually easy to guess the function from the name, or vice versa. We shall see later how the output of LilyPond can be changed by modifying the action of Engravers.

Internals reference: Engravers and Performers. Contexts are responsible for holding the values of a number of context properties. Many of them can be changed to influence the interpretation of the input and so change the appearance of the output. This takes the form. It may be omitted, in which case the current context typically Voice is assumed.

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The names of context properties consist of words joined together with no hyphens or underscores, all except the first having a capital letter. Here are a few examples of some commonly used ones. There are many more. So when a Boolean is being entered you need to code two hash signs, e. Before we can set any of these properties we need to know in which context they operate. Sometimes this is obvious, but occasionally it can be tricky. If the wrong context is specified, no error message is produced, but the expected action will not take place.

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For example, the instrumentName clearly lives in the Staff context, since it is the staff that is to be named. In this example the first staff is labeled, but not the second, because we omitted the context name. This is not an error, and no error message is logged in the log file.

Similarly, if the property name is mis-spelt no error message is produced, and clearly the expected action cannot be performed. But if the name is not known to LilyPond it will not cause any action to be taken. Some text editors with special support for LilyPond input files document property names with bullets when you hover them with the mouse, like JEdit with LilyPondTool, or highlight unknown property names differently, like ConTEXT.

If you do not use an editor with such features, it is recommended to check the property name in the Internals Reference: see Tunable context properties , or Contexts. The instrumentName property will take effect only if it is set in the Staff context, but some properties can be set in more than one context.

For example, the property extraNatural is by default set to t true for all staves. If it is set to f false in one particular Staff context it applies just to the accidentals on that staff. If it is set to false in the Score context it applies to all staves. As another example, if clefTransposition is set in the Score context this immediately changes the value of the transposition in all current staves and sets a new default value which will be applied to all staves.

The change is from the default value, not the most recently set value. We have now seen how to set the values of several different types of property.

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Note that integers and numbers are always preceded by a hash sign, , while a true or false value is specified by t and f , with two hash signs. The default value of context properties may be set at the time the context is created.

Sometimes this is a clearer way of setting a property value if it is to remain fixed for the duration of the context. For example, if we wish to suppress the printing of extra naturals for the duration of a staff we would write:. The values of context properties may be set in all contexts of a particular type, such as all Staff contexts, with a single command. Here is an example to show the format:. Notation Reference: Changing context default settings.

The set command. Internals Reference: Contexts , Tunable context properties. We have seen that contexts each contain several engravers, each of which is responsible for producing a particular part of the output, like bar lines, staves, note heads, stems, etc. If an engraver is removed from a context, it can no longer produce its output. This is a crude way of modifying the output, but it can sometimes be useful.

Some vocal scores have an ambitus placed at the beginning of a staff to indicate the range of notes in that staff — see ambitus. If we add it to the Voice context, it calculates the range from that voice only:. The examples above show how to remove or add engravers to individual contexts. For example, if we wanted to show an ambitus for every staff in a four-staff score, we could write. Notation Reference: Modifying context plug-ins , Changing context default settings. But how can you get the staves that you want? Well, you can find lots of templates see Templates which may give you a start.

Read on. Start off with the template that seems closest to what you want to end up with. We want them together, as a duet. If we simply cut and paste the melody section, we would end up with two melody definitions. This would not generate an error, but the second one would be used for both melodies. If we want the cello part to appear under the soprano part, we need to add.

This looks a bit messy; the indentation is messed up now. That is easily fixed. None of the templates provides this layout exactly. The nearest is SATB vocal score and automatic piano reduction — but we need to change the layout and add a piano accompaniment which is not derived automatically from the vocal parts. The variables holding the music and words for the vocal parts are fine, but we shall need to add variables for the piano reduction. The order in which the contexts appear in the ChoirStaff of the template do not correspond with the order in the vocal score shown above.